Enfield was first settled about 1820, and was originally called Cold Stream. It was incorporated on January 31, 1835. Cold Stream Pond, which occupies nearly one third of the town's 15,000 acres, is one of the state's purest bodies of water, reaching depths of more than 100 feet. Cold Stream takes its name from the literal translation of its Indian name, which is preserved as the title of the Enfield Grange, Ammadamast.
The first known white settler in the region was John Woods, arriving from Buckfield in 1819 to clear a farm and build a home near the south end of the town. This could possibly be the origin of the town's name, (end field), Enfield.
Much of Enfield's history can be attributed to the abundant hydro resources which served as highways for the early settlers and explorers, and as a source of power for a variety of mill industries. The first saw and grist mill was build on the shores of Cold Stream Pond at the outlet by General Joseph Treat. Other saw mills, a carding mill and a brick yard were early industries in the town. The Vanceboro Manufacturing Company produced various woodenware items such as pill boxes and whip sockets. Another mill produced plugs for the ends of paper rolls.
Enfield has had a number of elementary schools, and once had its own high school. After the school burned, students chose whether to attend school in Lincoln, Howland or Lee.
The Enfield Fish Hatchery has been in operation for many years. The hatchery raises brook trout and landlocked salmon for stocking by the Maine Department of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife. The fish hatchery is located at 45 Cobb Road, and can be visited between the hours of 8 am to 3 pm. Please call (207) 732-3676 before visiting.